Location of the Uralic proto-language in the Kama River Valley and the Uralic speakers' Expansion east and west with the 'Sejma-Turbino transcultural phenomenon’ 2200-1900 BC (Распространение уральского праязыка в долине реки Камы и экспансия носителей)

Авторы

  • Аско Парпола Хельсинкский университет

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24852/2587-6112.2022.2.258.277

Ключевые слова:

археология, волго-камский неолит, долина реки Камы, сейминско-турбинская культура, гарино-борская культура, Абашево, Синташта, колесница, уральский регион, индоевропейский регион, индоиранский регион

Аннотация

Неолит в Волго-Камском регионе возник в результате экспансии елшанской культуры в Нижнее Прикамье около 5700 г. до н.э. Соответствующие «индоуральские» лингвистические параллели свидетельствуют об экспансии носителей до-протоиндоевропейского языка на территорию носителей до-протоуральского языка. Это подтверждает сведения лингвистической палеонтологии (протоуральские слова, обозначающие «кедровую сосну», «пчелу» и «мед»), согласно которым население долины реки Камы имело уральские корни. Протоуральский язык имел заимствования из до-протоиндоиранского языка, носителей которого в настоящее время можно проследить до абашевской культуры 2200–2000 гг. до н.э.: в результате абашевской экспансии из Нижней Камы в Урало-Тобольское междуречье возникла cинташтинская культура (2000–1900 гг. до н.э.), содержащая наиболее ранние археологические свидетельства появления колесниц, запряженных лошадьми, соответствующих протоиндоиранской лексике в отношении колесниц. В период между 2200 и 1900 гг. до н.э. сейминско-турбинская система воинов, кузнецов и торговцев была источником распространения высококачественного оружия вдоль границы таежной и степной зон между Верхней Обью и Финляндией. Этот длинный узкий коридор соответствует области распространения промежуточных протоязыков уральской языковой семьи. Существует мнение, что сейминско-турбинская система возникла в период, когда абашевские кузнецы мигрировали из Баланбаша на Нижней Каме в Турбино на Средней Каме, где они создали металлический кельт сейминско-турбинской системы, пришедший на смену местному каменному кельту. Впоследствии металлический топор, наконечники копий абашевского типа и другое оружие стали продаваться в западных и восточных областях носителям охотничье-рыболовческих культур Европы и Сибири (где производилось оружие из оловянной бронзы), что сделало прауральский основным языком в подчиненных сейминско-турбинской системе областях.

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2022-04-29

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Parpola, A. (2022). Location of the Uralic proto-language in the Kama River Valley and the Uralic speakers’ Expansion east and west with the ’Sejma-Turbino transcultural phenomenon’ 2200-1900 BC (Распространение уральского праязыка в долине реки Камы и экспансия носителей). Археология Евразийских степей, (2), 258–277. https://doi.org/10.24852/2587-6112.2022.2.258.277

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